Refined enumeration of 2-noncrossing trees

Isaac Owino Okoth
Notes on Number Theory and Discrete Mathematics
Print ISSN 1310–5132, Online ISSN 2367–8275
Volume 27, 2021, Number 2, Pages 201—210
DOI: 10.7546/nntdm.2021.27.2.201-210
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Authors and affiliations

Isaac Owino Okoth
Department of Pure and Applied Mathematics, Maseno University
Private Bag, Maseno, Kenya


A 2-noncrossing tree is a connected graph without cycles that can be drawn in the plane with its vertices on the boundary of circle such that the edges are straight line segments that do not cross and all the vertices are coloured black and white with no ascent (ij), where i and j are black vertices, in a path from the root. In this paper, we use generating functions to prove a formula that counts 2-noncrossing trees with a black root to take into account the number of white vertices of indegree greater than zero and black vertices. Here, the edges of the 2-noncrossing trees are oriented from a vertex of lower label towards a vertex of higher label. The formula is a refinement of the formula for the number of 2-noncrossing trees that was obtained by Yan and Liu and later on generalized by Pang and Lv. As a consequence of the refinement, we find an equivalent refinement for 2-noncrossing trees with a white root, among other results.


  • 2-noncrossing trees
  • Local orientation
  • Sources

2020 Mathematics Subject Classification

  • 05A19
  • 05C05
  • 05C30


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Cite this paper

Okoth, I. O. (2021). Refined enumeration of 2-noncrossing trees. Notes on Number Theory and Discrete Mathematics, 27(2), 201-210, doi: 10.7546/nntdm.2021.27.2.201-210.

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